Early Gods & Kings
c. -3067 to -2750
Mars & Mercury
By c. -3050 the pair were beginning a cycle of near-Earth circlings that would last some 300 years, while the slowly equilibrating orbital ellipses of both Mars & Mercury overlapped the Earth's own newfound orbit.
At punctual intervals, the "dynamic duo" were seen "contesting" in the night skies with great pomp and fanfare. But these were not the only two "gods" on nightly display; the splendorous sight of Venus was well recalled by cultures the world over. And until approximately -2860 (coinciding with the close of the 1st Egyptian dynasty), Jupiter himself was a numinous spectacle to behold. Several surviving cultures preserved narratives of these "heavenly activities" as ostentatious displays of familial rivalry -- such as the Hindu epic Mahabharata. 'Chester Beatty Papyrus I' preserves what seems to be a later (c. -1500 to -700) Egyptian recension of these sightings, as The Contendings of Horus and Set.
In Egyptian myth-histories of the earliest dynasties, these circlings constituted the visits of 'Horus,' i.e., Mars likely appearing for the first time with a squat mountain of plasma emanating from his south pole, every night, on account of Earth's daily rotating, appearing to circle around Earth's north polar regions. Pyramidal structures in China make allusions to a "gold prism tower" as well as a "horn-drill" that shredded the ground.
The repeated returns constituted the post-diluvian Mesopotamian "kings" of Kish. The "pharaohs" of the first and second dynasty of Egypt form a parallel record (the 'Palermo Stone'). (Cook, Appendix A) 10 such "fly-bys" can be inferred from Egyptian records, some 10 or 11 occasions by the Mesopotamian King List, and 10 times by the Mesoamerican Chilam Balam, concluding in about -2750 (or is it -2705?).
Every 30 years or during this interval, Mars came close enough (beyond or above us) for Mars to make electrical contact with Earth (via the streaming vortex or conical "mountain" of plasma pouring from his south pole, streaming away from the 'Solar wind') -- recalled from the text of spells on coffins and pyramids, and eventually recorded in the Egyptian Book of the Dead.
It is true that there is not much of a written record of the destructive interactions between Earth and Mars during this era. The same may be said for the a later period of catastrophic Martian flybys during the -8th and -7th centuries. We know far more about these destructions from archaeology than from any contemporaneous records. Quite simply, there were too few people left alive in the devastated areas to commit the details to writing.
The psychological "shock and awe" experienced by the survivors seems to have been very formative during these earliest centuries of recorded history. While cultures lost to history vanished within the space of a day, it would be neighboring and/or distant cultures, who beheld the Martian spectacles from far-off, who reconfigured their social structures, philosophies of life and ways of being in response to these awesome celestial spectacles. As above, so below. As the gods once did, so does man do.
Earth and Mars would near each other only on relatively rare occasions. In the 'Turin (King List) Papyrus' and other Egyptian records, the lifespan of Horus is given as "300 years." 10 or 11 times in roughly 300 years gives an apparent estimate of 30-year intervals. This approximation seems well supported by the sequence of "kings" at Kish, "pharaohs" in Egypt, and the birth of "firstborn sons" in the Bible -- all of which happen at intervals of 25 to 35 years. (The current, more circularized orbit of Mars still closes in on Earth every 30 years.)
In these instances, Earth and Mars would not need to be in line with Sol (as would be the condition later during catastrophic events when the streaming plasmatrails of other inner Sol-system bodies entangled Earth's electromagnetic field). As Cook elaborates, "Electrons in the Van Allen belts of the Earth, a toroidal ring of plasma a few thousand miles above the equatorial regions, will move to different locations over distances of a thousand miles in only a few seconds when a lightning strike is experienced far below in the atmosphere of the Earth (the last few miles above the surface). We could expect the same rapid reconfiguration when two planetary plasmaspheres intersect. A thousand miles in two seconds ("a few") represents a speed on the order of 2 million miles per hour. This is actually the speed of the Solar Wind in the region of space near Earth today." (Cook, Appendix B)
Mars would suddenly appear close to Earth, probably above the northern hemisphere, seen at first on the night side, then seen rotating around the sky, and finally entering the day skies (or vice versa). Mars' apparent movement across the skies was, of course, caused by the daily rotation of Earth. Planets do not leave their orbits; but orbits do slowly shift over time in relation to each other, enough to stimulate electrical interference between two or more bodies.
There were no "collisions" of planets, nor could there ever be. Electrical interaction between plasmaspheres of planets most often occurs at distances of hundreds-of-thousands to tens-of-millions of miles. (Cook, Appendix B) If a plasmasphere "tail" (in the case of Mars as 'Horus,' this would have been his south polar "mountain") "strikes" the plasmasphere of another planet -- then there is electrical contact. With the planets orbiting at different periods and at different inclinations to the ecliptic, this would be a very infrequent event.
Mars, without an atmosphere, would have had a very closely held coma, perhaps composed only of dust, with a tangled tail of ions and electrons borrowed from the solar wind. The records of Mesoamerica, indicating that Mars was seen approaching Earth as a "mighty demon bat" (after -747), suggests that perhaps the dust-envelope extended into space away from the planet, and was especially noticeable in the daytime. (Cook, Appendix B)
When close to Earth, a conical plasma connection would be established between Earth and Mars -- from the Earth's ionosphere to the violently discharging lower hemisphere of Mars. Because the edges of this cone appeared the most dense, it looked as if the "mountain" had distinct edges and flat sides, like a 'pyramid.' (Cook, Appendix B) In China this was characterized as both a "golden prism tower" as well as a "horn-drill." The tubular interior of Mars' plasmasphere tail (possibly the raised "right arm" of Min) was the medium for electrical Forces; but the double-layered outside edges of the tail (possibly the pyramidal "square" of Min's flail) were more likely to be the conduit for contacts involving arc-mode discharges.
But this was not all. "The movement of Mars past the Earth at a distance closer than the Moon would gravitationally raise tides perhaps 8 or 10 times higher than normal and would deform those regions of Earth closest to the passing Mars, and certainly at this distance this would produce plasma interchanges," colossal thunderbolts striking down mountain peaks and folding up molten stone. (Cook, Appendix B)
Electrical contact during these 'visits of Horus,' initiated by Mars' lower plasma 'pyramid' (Greek pyr+amid, literally, "fire in the middle"), were thus due exclusively to the sheer physical proximity of their then current orbital paths -- meetings "at the crossroads." Neither planet left its orbit; but neither planet, then, circled the sun on the same orbit as they do today. As both Earth and Mars proceeded on their orbits, distancing from one another, their entangled electromagnetic fields would again separate, and the melting mountains, blistering sands and boiling seas below would cease.
This sequence of events probably lasted only a few days at the most. The orbital ellipse of Mars might have been torqued from various angles during these "flybys." (Earth, however, with 10 times the mass of Mars, does not seem to have its orbit significantly affected during this era.) Then Mars was off again into deep space (or toward Sol), repeating this performance some 25 to 35 (or approximately 30) years later. This continued for roughly 300 years, until "the second nodal points of the elliptical orbits of Earth and Mars had revolved away from each other." (Cook, Appendix A)
Egyptian 'Horus Pharaohs'
The Turin Royal Canon as well as the Abydos King List record the first two Egyptian dynasties, whose 'Horus Pharaohs' and royal families were more likely mytho-historical celestial apparitions of Mars, Mercury and Venus rather than historical human persons. The Palermo Stone also records the 'Horus Pharaohs,' but opens with a list of several thousands of mytho-historical rulers "predating the rise of the god Horus." [These are likely comparable to the antediluvian King Lists of Mesopotamia -- i.e., measured in days ("turns" of the chronological crescent of Saturn) and corresponding to the "descents" of Mars above Earth's north geomagnetic pole during the post-nova era of the 'Golden Age.']
What we are most likely looking at are the records of the first series of repeating close approaches of two former Saturnian planet-satellites -- Mars and Mercury, both on an average 30-year cycle. Generally speaking, one may "recognize repeating cycles by combining the kings into groups of two (or more) -- one accounting for a crossing of Mars, followed some years later by a crossing of Mercury (or a return crossing by Mars, or Mercury)." (Cook, Appendix A)
The periodicity of these close encounters, approaches or overpasses may be distinguished from the duo's synodic periods. Their synodic periods would have remained almost entire the same during this era -- roughly 2 solar years. Only during larger circle-cycles (averaging about 30 years) would they cross over the orbit of Earth while Earth was still nearby.
(1.1) - Pharaoh Hor-Menes ('Min')
The Palermo Stone then records that 'Horus' conferred kingship on 'Menes,' the first 'Horus Pharaoh' (c. -3050 to -3016?) of the 1st dynasty, who may actually be synonymous with the Egyptian god-form 'Min.' 'Min' (Mnw), the "tall-plumed," was regarded as a "brother" of 'Horus,' another son of Isis and Osiris. Min was an early ithyphalic figure, dark skinned and holding a golden flail aloft in his right hand. "He who raises his arm in the East," mentioned in the Pyramid Texts, may be a reference to Min. His long, horn-like "goatee" (osird, made of labdanum-soaked goat hair) may be the same plasma-form elsewhere described as a lolling "tongue."
As the first 'royal incarnation' of Horus to visit Egypt (i.e., planet Earth), Min's tall north polar plumes (which seem to conform to the stylized outline of the royal "red crown") may be descriptive of violent discharging similar to a cometary trail. The "double plume" resembles the double plume adorning the head of Isis, as well as the tail of the "swallow" witnessed in Mesopotamia, deductively identified as Mercury.
'Min' may, in fact, have been an appearance of Mercury rather than Mars. His erect penis (symbolized by the Egyptians as the procreative potency, or genetic fertility of the Pharaoh) may have originally been descriptive of an "ejaculatory" electrical discharge between Mars and Mercury as they started out on their new solar orbits. This may be how 'Horus' "conferred kingship" on 'Menes' (i.e., 'Min').
Menes was held by Manetho to have lived for 62 years (possibly indicative of two transits of 'Horus' Mars?) and died when he was "mauled to death by a hippopotamus" (regarded as a characterization of Set). Pliny remembered Menes as the "inventor of writing in Egypt." This might seem to identity him with Thoth (i.e., Mercury). Whoever Menes (or Min) may have represented, Egypt's practice of recording history did indeed begin with his appearance in c. -3067.
Min was addressed as the "God of High Plumes" in the Hymn to Min, and is described as "piercing the sky with his double plume ... mounting his staircase ... full of his mother ... upon his great throne ... fair of face, he enriches the two breasts." # (Flinders Petrie, W.M., & Hogarth, D.G. 1896, Koptos, p. 20)
Could the "two breasts" which the "fair face" of Min "enriched" refer to Mars' two destroyed satellites, Phobos & Deimos, faintly aglow inside Mars' dusty toroid plasmasphere? As in the case of the 4 largest Jovian satellites, there are several references in classical literature to folk traditions claiming knowledge of two satellites of Mars, visible to the naked eye. This was dismissed as nothing more than hearsay until the two were re-discovered by telescope at the U.S. Naval Observatory in 1877. (Alternatively, the "two breasts" may refer to the pronounced toroid of Jupiter's plasmasphere, clouded by dusty electronic machining and highlighted by glow-mode plasma.)
Phobos and Deimos may have belonged to the pack of "dogs" that, according to Diodorus, reputedly "attacked" the Pharaoh Menes when he was out hunting, forcing him to flee across "the Pure Lake of Osiris" on the "back of a crocodile." Some translators, however, translate Diodorus' word 'campsa' as "ark" rather than "crocodile."
(This would seem to allude to the "ark" of Jupiter; if 'Menes' is instead to be identified as Jupiter (as, for example, Cook suggests in his Appendix F), the "dogs" could here refer to the larger satellites of Jupiter, apparently still visible during Jupiter's numinous departure. Jupiter's own dusty 'gossamer' rings and devastated inner satellites seem to attest to a great "struggle" during this era. "The Pure Lake of Osiris" could then be identified as Earth's own equatorial rings, at that date just coming into alignment with the ecliptic; the "ark" of course being the lower crescent of Jupiter, illuminated by the brilliant "mountainous" discharges emanating from his south pole.)
Moreover, in addition to his two destroyed satellites, Mars also retains to this day a preceding and receding trail of "debris consisting of millions of rock fragments of asteroids." The cloud that trails behind Mars is also "followed at a somewhat greater distance by a number of larger asteroids." #(Cook, Chapter 18) These larger asteroids were counted as "7" in the Vedas, and called the 'Maruts.' In Egypt (on the Palermo Stone, for example) they were remembered as the 'Followers of Horus.' There are still 7 extant today (or perhaps only 6, by some counts), known as 'trojan asteroids.' These are presumably more likely candidates for the identity of the "dogs" who attacked Menes, as Diodorus seems to indicate that the "dogs" were Menes very own. (This does not necessarily rule out Jupiter and his own "attendant beasts," however.)
Jupiter retained the initial outpouring of its massive discharge mountain until entering the asteroid belt in about -2860 (or perhaps earlier, c. -2914), after which the plasmaform of its coma changed shape from pyramidal "mountain" to the globally-attested "shen" form. (Cook, Chapter 2) "The plasma from Jupiter's south pole extended directly left and right to the asteroids and curved up further away. These are the "ram horns" of 'Amun-Re.' It is called the 'shen' in its simplest form in Egypt (a circle on a flat line), and is depicted as a boat almost everywhere in antiquity." (Cook, Chapter 2)
Jupiter would have been seen along the ecliptic (where Sol is seen today), somewhat obscured by Earth's equatorial rings, sometimes at night, but other times during the day. Plutarch boasted that Jupiter during his 'Midnight Sun' phases was visibly three times the diameter of the moon, and thus visibly three times the diameter of the sun.
Witness this clay seal from Mohenjo-Daro, sometimes referred to as an image of 'Proto-Shiva,' featuring imagery characteristic of the appearance of Jupiter as 'Midnight Sun' -- 'horned head' of plasma torus, and seated with legs folded in a knotted 'shen' shape on a throne. The entire impression from the neck down is that of a 'pyramid' (or 'mantle') descending from a torus-wrapped 'head' with a tufted plume on top.
The 4 large animals circling around his head may be representative of the 4 largest satellites of Jupiter, seen as discreet objects within his coma during eras of glow-mode instability. Surrounding 'Proto-Shiva's' horns and crowning tuft is a series of letters, perhaps alluding to the sight of arc-mode plasma streamers passing between the poles of Jupiter and one of its largest satellites -- either Ganymede, Io, Callisto or Europa.
Rex Jupiter's Four "Attendant Beasts"
The striking appearance of 'Midnight Sun' Jupiter may well have cemented in some cultures' cosmologies the lore that Jupiter has four visible satellites, viewable with the naked human eye. The Dogon people of Mali are one salient instance. This has been regarded as an anomaly by modern day anthropologists because no satellite of Jupiter is visible with the naked human eye today.
They were first observed in modern times thro Galileo's telescope in 1610 and became the first satellites of the outer planets known and named by modern astronomy. Some may once have been inner Sol-system planets, scavenged by Jupiter during his own phases of dynamic equilibrium with Sol.
Note the tufted fan-like plume surmounted by twin polar vortices, and the 'shen' shape of his posture, necklace and hand-held "diadem." The dusty plasma torus is here indicated by the eye-shaped recesses under his arms as well as his iconic face. Even more strikingly, 'Cernunnos' is here surrounded by 4 large animals, including two with their own polar plume "horns." (This 'circle of 4 beasts' later became so redundantly iconic as to be retained, even in our own latter days, as commonplace imagery in nearly every religion -- not to mention the fanciful and deeply polarized "structure" of the human psyche championed by 20th-century psychologies.)
One horned beast looms especially large in the foreground here. (This is precisely as recalled in Mohenjo-Daro, more than 4500 miles away.) This may be Ganymede, the largest satellite in the Jovian system (bigger than both Mercury and our own modern-day Moon), but may also be representative of Io, who still retains his bright blue north polar plasma plume to this day.
Concentric whorls and bifurcating leafed branches seem to entangle the horns of 'Cernunnos' and this largest beast. Additional outpourings of concentric swirls and leafy "arrows" are seen to pass between 'Cernunnos' and the other beasts as well. These concentric streaming whirls may be a visual memory of chaotic discharges in the Jovian system, which not only left several of its (smaller) inner satellites devastated but also likely contributed to the banding of Jupiter's dusty 'gossamer' rings.
Chinese 'Kâo-yang,' the "Solely Correct"
'Kâo-yang' was likely this earliest manifestation of 'Midnight Sun' Jupiter.
The Postdiluvian Kings
All the lists of post-diluvian "kings after the flood" differ from the list of antediluvian "kings before the flood." In Sumerian recensions, for example, the 'saros' measurement is never used again, nor the literary style used to describe each city. But the lists for the first post-diluvian dynasties of Kish and Uruk also differ from any of the following lists -- not only because of the long reign lengths, but also because these two lists include short descriptive phrases for a number of "kings." A number of these decriptions read very similar to those found among the genealogies of Genesis. The records of these "kings" may have been conformed to actual human kings who reigned at Kish and possibly Uruk; but these first dynasties were more likely "lorded over" by mass acceptance of a celestial "god" as their "reincarnating king." (Cook, Appendix A)
"Additionally, just as the list of the kings of Kish list 10 kings (although in groups of two) between the flood of -3147 and the time of Gilgamesh and Egypt claims ten visits of Horus, so the Bible lists 10 patriarchs between the "flood of -2349" and Abraham. Abraham is the 10th generation born after Noah (counting Shem). All except the first and last of these 10 generations were sired when their father was 29, 30, 32, or 35 years old." (Cook, Appendix A)
During the following period of Katun 9-Ahau (-3087 to -3067), 'Ten-Sky' first appears, which are the close calls of Mars initiated after c. - 3067. Repetitions are not specifically dated; the name 'Ten-Sky' seems to have been deemed sufficient to indicate this. #(Cook, Appendix A)
Cretan 'King Minos'
The mytho-historical 'King Minos' of Cretan legend may, in fact, have been identical to the 'Min' or 'Menes' whose appearance inaugurated the first Egyptian dynasty. The word 'minos' is, in fact, the Cretan word for "king."
Canaanite 'Baal Meon'
Sumerian "Kings of Kish"
The "kings" of ancient Sumer have "genealogies" very similar to those found among the genealogies of Genesis. Among the "kings" recorded in Mesopotamian King Lists is Etana, "the shepherd who ascended to Heaven and made firm all the lands" (c. -2913(-2914) to -2888?). His "ascension" was "on the wings of an eagle." (Etana may have been contemporaneous with Meskiaggasher of Uruk and Egyptian Pharaoh (1.7) Hor-Semerkhet (Semsu), in whose reign "some type of calamity occurred," according to Manetho.)
Also listed is Enmebaraggesi, the "king" who smote the land of Elam -- possibly a reference to the melting (and raising?) of the Zagros Mountains' 'folded zone' (c. -2793 to -2778?). Beneath the 'salt domes' and 'salt glaciers' of the Zagros rich deposits of petroleum are trapped. In the east of the Zagros lies salt-water Bakhtegan Lake, while west and south of the Zagros folded zone lies the Persian Gulf, one of the saltiest bodies in the world. Is the high concentration of salt and petroleum, amidst a scarred and tortured landscape, perhaps evidence of the "kingly" smiting of ancient Elam? (Enmebaraggesi and Dumuzi of Uruk may also have been contemporaneous with Egyptian Pharaoh (2.4) Hor-Wneg (Wadjnas) and/or Hor-Senedj (Sethenes).)
Sumerian "Kings of Uruk"
The "kings" of ancient Uruk likewise seem to have borne attributes and accomplished feats fit for a god.
Among them are Meskiaggasher (c. -2888 to -2881?), "the son of the 'Sun-God,' Utu [Shamash, i.e., Saturn], ruled as both lord and king ... until he entered the sea and climbed the mountains." This may characterize the whirlwind of driving rain and destructive thunderbolts that boiled seas and melted mountains -- the localized effects of the plasmasphere entanglements of Earth and Mars. Meskiaggasher is listed as "the first to write on tablets." (Etana of Kish and Meskiaggasher may also have been contemporaneous with Egyptian Pharaoh (1.7) Hor-Semerkhet (Semsu), in whose reign "some type of calamity occurred," according to Manetho.)
Also among the list is Dumuzi, "the fisherman who came from the city of Kuara" (c. -2813 to -2778?). This may be the earliest instance of 'Tammuz,' a "dying and resurrecting" god-form celebrated by various cultures for thousands of years thereafter. (Enmebaraggesi of Kish and Dumuzi may also have been contemporaneous with Egyptian Pharaoh (2.4) Hor-Wneg (Wadjnas) and/or Hor-Senedj (Sethenes).)
The most well-known "king" of Uruk is Gilgamesh (c. -2768 to -2740?), "whose father was a spirit (or phantom)." Gilgamesh was most likely contemporaneous with (and possibly identical to) Pharoah (2.5) Seth-Peribsen (c. -2751 to -2743?), in addition to King Aga of Kish (c. -2778 to -2768?). These seem to have been the final "godlike" kings of the early 'Silver Age.' Cook conjectures that the Biblical narrative of Abraham may be related to this era. "The period from the biblical flood (-2349) to the midpoint of Abraham's life is nearly equal to the time between the Mesopotamian flood of -3147 and the midpoint of Gilgamesh's reign ... . Both Gilgamesh and Abraham were heroes to their people, and "mythologically" located at the midpoints of two analogical world histories. Both may represent the last apparition of Mars and embody all the previous appearances, as Hercules does for the Greeks at a later date. ... After Abraham, as with Gilgamesh, the life spans become normal." (Cook, Appendix A)
(1.2) - Pharaoh Hor-Aha
Egyptian records indicate that his mother Neith-hotep "died" during the era of Hor-Aha -- perhaps indicative that Earth's south polar plume had temporarily fizzled out of glow-mode. The persistence with which succeeding queens and mothers have 'Neith' in their names, however, may be indicative of successive states of observed plasma instabilities. Hor-Aha himself did not have a 'Neith' wife, however.
Hor-Aha had two wives, Benerib and Khenthap ("harper of Hapi" i.e., the 'Bull Apis,' a symbol of kingship -- perhaps an eclipse of 'Midnight Sun' Jupiter by 'Comet Venus'?). Manetho claimed that Hor-Aha became pharaoh at age 30, and ruled until age 60, when he too, just like Menes, was held to have been carried away by a hippopotamus -- regarded as an embodiment of Set (possibly referring to an instance of Mars passing behind Sol?).
Hor-Aha is sometimes regarded as the son of Narmer or Menes, while sometimes being identified as Menes -- and perhaps Narmer as well. He is remembered for "smiting Nubia" (c. -3050 to -3016?). This is perhaps a reference to the Nubian Desert, where enormous stretches of scorched sand are plainly viewable from the air. These "scorch marks" seem contiguous to those in the west of the Arabian peninsula; in fact, the Red Sea itself, which divides the two deserts, has the appearance of a deep wound, also visible from the air.
(1.7) Pharaoh Hor-Semerkhet
Etana of Kish and Meskiaggasher of Uruk (c. -2913(-2914) to -2888?) may also have been contemporaneous with Egyptian Pharaoh (1.7) Hor-Semerkhet (Semsu), in whose reign "calamity occurred," according to Manetho (c. -2897 to -2889?). Manetho claimed that Hor-Semerkhet was a 'usurper' to the throne, and this was the "reason" for the disasters.
(1.8) Pharaoh Hor-Qa'a
By about -2860 (but perhaps as early as -2914), Jupiter had disappeared into the asteroid belt, and the Egyptian 1st Dynasty came to an end during the confused era of Pharaoh (1.8) Hor-Qa'a.
PHARAOHS (EGYPT ("Hiku'Ptah"))
0.2 Scorpion I
0.1 Scorpion II
1.1 Menes (Min) (c. -3067 to -3016?)
1.2 Hor-Aha (Teti) (c. -3050 to -3016?)
1.3 Djer (Iti, Ita) (c. -3049 to -3008?)
1.4 Djet (Ita, Itui) (c. -3008 to -2975?)
1.5 Den (Septi) (c. -2975 to 2935?)
1.6 Anedjib (Meribiap) (c. -2935 to -2925?)
1.7 Semerkhet (Semsu) (c. -2925 to -2916 (-2914)?
c. -2897 to -2889?)
1.8 Qa'a (Qabeh) (c. -2916(-2914) to -2890? -2860?)
2.1 Hotepsekhemwy (Bedjau)
2.2 Nebre / Raneb (Kakau)
2.3 Ninetjer (Banetjer)
2.4 Wadjnes / Wneg (Wadjnas) // Senedj (Sendi)
(c. -2778 to -2751?)
2.5 Seth-Peribsen (c. -2751 to -2743?)
2.6 Khasekhemwy / Neferkara I (Djadjay) (c. -2740?)
"After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kish."
K1 Jushur (c. -3067 - 3047?)
K2 Kullassina-bel (c. -3047 to -3031?)
K3 Nangishlishma (c. -3031 to -3020?)
K4 En-tarah-ana (c. -3020 to 3013?)
K5 Babum (c. -3013 to -3008?)
K6 Puannum (c. -3008 to -2994?)
K7 Kalibum (Galibuum, "Hound") (c. -2994 to -2978?)
K8 Kalumum (c. -2978 to -2964?)
K9 Zuqaqip ("Scorpion") (c. -2964 to -2949?)
K10 Atab (A-ba?) (c. -2949 to -2939?)
K11 Mashda (c. -2939 to -2935?)
K12 Arwium (c. -2935 to -2913(-2914)?)
K13 Etana (c. -2913(-2914) to -2888?)
K14 Balih (c. -2888 to -2881?)
K15 En-me-nuna (c. -2881 to -2870?)
K16 Melem-Kish (c. -2870 to -2855?)
K17 Barsal-nuna (c. -2855 to -2835?)
K18 Zamug (c. 2835 to -2833?)
K19 Tizqar (c. -2833 to -2828?)
K20 Ilku (c. -2828 to -2813?
K21 Iltasadum (c. -2813 to -2793?)
K22 Enmebaragesi (c. -2793 to -2778?)
U5 Dumuzi (c. -2813 to -2778?)
K23 Aga (c. -2778 to -2768?)
U6 Gilgamesh (c. -2768 to -2740?)
"Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to E-ana." (Temple of Inanna in Uruk, location of the first Ziggurat)